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Chapter: List of Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Initialisms

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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

60 List of Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Initialisms AC Alternating current ADA Americans with Disabilities Act ASE National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence ATC Automatic train control ATO Automatic train operation ATP Automatic train protection ATU Amalgamated Transit Union CBTC Computer-based train control CMS Credential management system CTAA Community Transportation Association of America DC Direct current DOT Department of transportation GCRTA Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority JATC Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committee HVAC Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning IBT Internet-based testing IBEW International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers ISD Instructional system design LACMTA Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority LRV Light rail vehicle MARTA Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority MDBF Mean distance between failures MBTA Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority NJATC National Joint Apprenticeship and Training Committee NTI National Transit Institute NYCT New York City Transit OEM Original equipment manufacturer PPE Personal protective equipment RATP Paris Regional Transit System RTD Denver Regional Transit District ROI Return on Investment SacRT Sacramento Regional Transit SEPTA Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority SME Subject matter expert TriMet Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District TTN Transit Training Network TWU Transport Workers Union UTA Utah Transit Authority VTA Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority

Abbreviations and acronyms used without definitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACI–NA Airports Council International–North America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S.DOT United States Department of Transportation

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TRB’s Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Report 170: Establishing a National Transit Industry Rail Vehicle Technician Qualification Program—Building for Success describes a system of qualification that has been developed for rail vehicle technicians. This qualification system is available for implementation through the Transportation Learning Center.

The program integrates national training standards, progressive classroom curricula and introductory courseware, on-the-job learning modules, an apprenticeship framework that combines well-designed sequences of learning, mentoring to support learners, and coordination of classroom and on-the-job learning. The qualification system also includes written and hands-on certification assessments to confirm that technicians have the practical knowledge and skills required to perform their jobs at the highest level of expertise.

Supplemental information to the report is found in Appendices A-D and Appendices E-P .

You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

8 C.F.R. § 1240.3. 8 U.S.C. § 1229a.

8 C.F.R. § 1240.7.

8 C.F.R. § 1240.5 and § 1240.6.

Immigration judges are required to inform aliens of their right to representation as well as the right “to examine and object to the evidence against him or her, to present evidence in his or her own behalf and to cross-examine witnesses presented by the government.” 31

8 C.F.R. § 1240.10.

8 C.F.R. § 1240.9.

Once the court issues its final decision, both the government and aliens have 30 days to file an appeal with the BIA. 33

8 C.F.R. § 1240.15.

, Exec. Office for Immigration Rev., U.S Dept. of Justice (last revised Feb. 3, 2017), https://www.justice.gov/eoir/board-immigration-appeals-2 .

One of the deficiencies of the immigration court system is due to the failure of past attorneys general to act. Federal law provides that immigration judges “shall have authority (under regulations prescribed by the Attorney General) to sanction by civil money penalty any action (or inaction) in contempt of the judge’s proper exercise of authority.” 35

8 U.S.C. § 1229a (b)(1).

That contempt power should include the ability to sanction Department of Homeland Security officials who fail to implement deportation and removal orders issued by immigration judges. The Obama Administration nearly halted the enforcement of such orders. 36

von Spakovsky Metcalf, note 9.

Incentivizing Appeals—at Taxpayer Expense

Another dynamic inside the immigration court system that is unfair to the American taxpayer should also be changed. From 1996 through 2009, aliens appealed 214,404 out of 218,589 removal decisions issued by immigration trial courts—or 98 percent of all removal orders that included an application for relief. 37

Mark H. Metcalf, , Ctr for Immigration Studies (Oct. 2001) at 78, note 91, http://cis.org/sites/cis.org/files/articles/2011/built-to-fail-full.pdf .

At a House Judiciary Committee hearing on February 6, 2002, Judge Heilman testified that low filing fees and non-existent court costs encourage unwarranted appeals, the vast majority of which were “without any substantial basis on any ground.” He faulted the use of tax dollars to underwrite transcripts for private litigants, something that does not happen elsewhere in the civil court system. Judge Heilman stated:

One part of the answer lies in the fact that the appeal filing fee is very low, $110. With that fee being waived by the BIA in about 50 percent of appeals, oftentimes even where an alien is represented by an attorney. The alien is not charged for copies of the record or for the transcript of the hearing, which often exceeds 50 pages. All of these costs are absorbed by EOIR. By contrast, to my knowledge, no-cost appeals on a civil level are a rarity. 38

When it comes to improving any business workflow or process, the old adage, “progress, not perfection” is best. Very few processes are ever perfect. Moreover, the business and world around us is constantly changing, so it only makes sense that our work processes need to evolve over time as well.

This is a good time to solicit help from colleagues, co-workers, subordinates and supervisors. Get feedback from anyone directly or indirectly involved in the business workflow chain or the outcomes that the process produces. Seek their opinion on how to streamline steps, improve efficiency, or maybe even try something completely new. While you’ll occasionally identify big changes to processes, more often than not the input to improve is often small and subtle. Don’t discredit these small tweaks! Even the smallest improvement can have a big impact.

Care to guess the most common tool people use to track and manage their work processes? The answer is spreadsheets. An estimated 70 to 80 percent of businesses report using spreadsheets to track their critical processes and projects. Although a simple solution, using a spreadsheet to track a critical business workflow can be problematic. They’re difficult to share and keep up to date, as most people have to email them around to others for updates. Spreadsheets are also prone to data errors, as people mistakenly overwrite someone else’s input or just “fat finger” the wrong information or formula into a spreadsheet row or cell.

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solutions, including TrackVia, that are specifically designed to help streamline business processes and workflows. Sometimes referred to as “workflow” or BPM (business process management) software, they vary in terms of features and capabilities. Most, however, are designed to make it easy to centrally collect data, automate steps in a business workflow, and generate better visibility with graphs, charts and reports. Modern workflow solutions like TrackVia also provide advanced capabilities such as mobile and intelligent workflow to further streamline more critical and complex business processes.

As previously mentioned, no process or workflow is perfect. So once you’ve improved your existing process or have implemented new workflow automation software, expect to refine your process over time. Again, modern business workflow solutions make it easy to refine your process or workflow by allowing you to adjust or improve your workflow with simple drag-and-drop mouse clicks.

Hopefully these six simple suggestions are helpful. Of course, we realize that you’re busy. Maybe so busy that you don’t even have time to improve the processes you already have. If that’s the case, we’re happy to help. Streamlining critical workflows and processes is what we do and we’re happy to help however we can.

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